The Role of Low Dose Whole Body CT in the Detection of Progression of Patients with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, characterized by plasma cell bone marrow infiltration and end-organ involvement. Smoldering MM (SMM) is an intermediate clinical entity between MGUS and MM, with a risk of progression to symptomatic disease 10% per year. Bone disease is the most frequent symptom of MM, with ~90% of patients developing bone lesions throughout their disease course. Therefore, imaging plays a crucial role in diagnosis and management. Whole-body low-dose CT (WBLDCT) is widely available and has been incorporated in the latest diagnostic criteria of the IMWG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of WBLDCT in the early identification of lesions in patients with SMM who progress solely with bone disease. In total, 100 asymptomatic patients were consecutively assessed with WBLDCT from July 2013 until March 2020 at baseline, 1-year after diagnosis and every 1 year thereafter. Ten percent of patients were identified as progressors with this single imaging modality. This is the first study to evaluate prospectively patients with SMM at different time points to identify early bone lesions related to MM evolution. Serial WBLDCT studies can identify early myeloma evolution and optimize disease monitoring and therapeutic strategies.