Multiple Myeloma Diagnosis Is Associated with Racial Differences in Stem Cell Mobilization

Patient race and ethnicity was round to be associated with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) mobilization, according to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Apheresis. The analysis of autologous and allogeneic donors included patients with and without multiple myeloma (MM).

“Whether race/ethnicity plays a role in HSPC mobilization in autologous donors has not been studied,” wrote the study authors. “We hypothesize that donor characteristic including race/ethnicity, age, sex, body mass index, and diagnostic groups influences HSPC mobilization.”

MM Diagnosis Associated with Cell Yield Variability

The investigators retrospectively analyzed CD34-positive HSPC yields from 64 autologous patients and 48 allogeneic donors from a single center. The cohort of autologous donors included patients diagnosed with MM. Patients were stratified by race, and the study particularly looked at the differences between African American patients and white patients.

Multivariate analysis found that diagnostic group was a significant factor for CD34+ yields between different races and ethnicities. For example, African American patients without MM had reduced CD34+ cell yields compared with white patients. Race and ethnicity also were both significantly associated with pre-apheresis peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cell yields. Patients without MM had lower PB CD34+ cell mobilization compared with patients without MM. African American patients had the highest rates of PB CD34+ cells.

Influence of Plerixafor Treatment

The researchers noted that autologous MM donors treated with plerixafor demonstrated comparable CD34+ mobilization when compared with healthy allogeneic donors. The authors wrote, “Even though both MM and non-MM donors received plerixafor, non-MM donors had significantly lower CD34 yields among African American and [donors of other ethnicities], but not in white donors.”

 “Our study shows that race/ethnicity and diagnostic group differences influenced CD34+ cell mobilization response across donor types,” wrote the authors in conclusion. “Larger studies would be required to validate the role of diagnostic groups and race/ethnicity interactions.”