Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) constitutes approximately 10% of hematological malignancies. Bisphosphonates have established themselves in solid organ metastasis and multiple myeloma lytic bone lesions by inhibiting osteoclast activation. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) emerges as an important complication. Investigating host-based factors, and developing personal risk factors gain importance in the development mechanism of MRONJ. We aimed to reveal the different genotype polymorphisms, and clinical effects of eNOS in patients with a diagnosis of MRONJ in MM patients.
Methods: Medical records and blood samples were collected from 60 MRONJ patients with MM and 60 healthy controls. Inclusion criteria was having an exposed maxillofacial bone for more than eight weeks, a history of bisphosphonates, and no history of radiation therapy for the jaws. eNOS G894T and intron 4 VNTR were calculated by polymerase chain reaction and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results: eNOS G894T and VNTR genotypes and alleles were compared statistically with the healthy control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In comparison between G894T and clinical parameters, aphthous stomatitis was more common in TT genotype, while DMFT > 3 was more common in TG-GG genotype (p = 0.035, 0.023).
Conclusions: eNOS induces osteogenesis in bone metabolism, with its regulatory effects on bone remodeling and also NO induced angiogenesis takes place indirectly with its protective effect on endothelial functions. We see that these polymorphisms affecting the entire process of bone remodeling and angiogenesis, especially mucosal damage, which is the triggering factor of MRONJ pathology, have been revealed in the MM patient group. Considering the MRONJ initiating factors, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of our study results. It should be seen as an important step for new studies towards MRONJ and its treatment.