Background: Upfront single or tandem ASCT still represents an integral part of treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. The combination of intermediate dose (ID) – cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF, has been considered the standard method as mobilization regimen. No prospective randomized clinical trials have compared efficacy and costs using ID – cyclophosphamide against a chemo-free mobilization strategy with G-CSF and plerixafor on demand.
Methods: A prospective single arm of 20 patients enrolled in three Italian Centers mobilized with G-CSF plus plerixafor on demand was compared with a retrospective historical control arm of 30 patients mobilized with ID – cyclophosphamide (4 g/sqm) and G-CSF. Costs of the prospective arm was compared with the ones of the retrospective control arm with the aim to collect ≥4 × 106/kg CD34 + . The exploratory cost analysis was performed using microcosting specific inputs of G-CSF plus plerixafor on demand versus ID – cyclophosphamide + G-CSF considering pre-apheresis, peri-apheresis and post-apheresis session.
Results: Mobilization with ID – cyclophosphamide and G-CSF resulted in a significantly higher CD34+ peak mean on day 1 yield (119 CD34+ μL vs 67.3; p = 0.06) and in total average CD34+ yield (mean collection 10.6 × 106/kg vs 5.8 × 106/kg; p = 0.004) compared to patients mobilized with G-CSF and plerixafor. There was no significant differences (p = 0.36) in the two groups of patients collecting ≥ 4 million CD34+/Kg with ID – cyclophosphamide and G-CSF (93.3 %) vs G-CSF and plerixafor (90.0 %). None of the patients undergoing G-CSF and plerixafor mobilization had febrile neutropenia compared with 7 patients who received ID – cyclophosphamide and G-CSF (0% vs 23 %, p = 0.03) who had a median of 5 days hospitalization (range 4-6). All patients proceeded to ASCT with a mean of 3.6 CD34+/kg infused for G-CSF and plerixafor arm and 4.4 CD34+/kg for the ID – cyclophosphamide + GCSF group (p = 0.37) with a median time to ANC and PLT engraftment not different in the two groups. Total costs of a mobilizing strategy using a combination of G-CSF and plerixafor on demand was 12.690 euros compared to 16.088 euros with ID – cyclophosphamide and G-CSF (p = 0.07); in particular, mobilization cost components were significantly lower for G-CSF and plerixafor vs G-CSF and ID – cyclophosphamide for hospital stay (3080 euros vs 9653 euros; p < 0.001) whereas for mobilizing agent, there was a significative difference with 5470 euros for G-CSF and plerixafor use due to the cost of plerixafor compared with 1140 euros for ID – cyclophosphamide and G-CSF treatment (P = 0.001).
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that in patients with multiple myeloma eligible for ASCT, a chemo-free mobilization with G-CSF and plerixafor on demand is associated with efficacy in PBSC collection and optimal safety profile with similar average costs when compared to a chemo-mobilization with ID – cyclophosphamide. A prospective randomized multicenter study could address which is the most cost-effective strategy for this setting of patients.