Immunophenotype of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Minorities—Analysis from the SEER database

Abstract

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that originates from immature lymphoid cells and is clinically established with flow cytometry through disease-specific markers. Variation between ethnic groups is an epidemiological aspect of ALL. Higher incidence rates have been observed in Latin American patients and ALL in Latinos carries a dismal prognosis. The cell of origin in ALL is derived from immature cells of either the B or T lineage. Most reported data among Latinos either exclusively looks at B cell precursor ALL or do not distinguish between subtypes. We used the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to delineate the differences in incidence rates of B-ALL and T-ALL across ethnic groups in the United States. Data from SEER-18 was used to compare incidence rates of T-ALL and B-ALL. Due to the utilization of cytogenetics and subsequent changes in ICD coding over the years examined the most recent data reported from 2002 to 2017. We compared rates in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), Latinos, Blacks and Asian-Pacific Islanders (API). Age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated. The incidence rate of B-ALL in the Latino population was consistently higher than other race/ethnicities throughout the years, ranging from 1.0 per 100,000 in 2002 to 2.5 per 100,000 in 2017. Blacks had the lowest age adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of B-ALL overall, with rates approximately one third of those found in Latinos and the highest AAIR of T-ALL with an AAIR of 0.5 per 100,000. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.