Impact of Race on Outcomes in Intermediate-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Purpose: Racial disparities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been reported but the relative contribution of disease versus patient-specific factors including comorbidities and access to care is unclear.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patient characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes in a racially diverse patient cohort controlling for cytogenetic risk group. Patients were classified into four groups: non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic and Other.

Results: We evaluated 106 patients from 84 zipcodes incorporating demographics, clinicopathologic features, treatment patterns and outcomes. We identified significant differences in BMI and geographic poverty based on ethnoracial group, while prognostic mutations in NPM1 and FLT3 did not differ significantly. Utilization of intensive chemotherapy and transplant rate did not differ by ethnoracial group. However, there was a significantly higher use of alternate donor transplants in minority populations. There was a notably increased rate of clinical trial enrollment in NHW patients compared to other groups. In log-rank analysis, NHW patients had increased overall survival (OS) compared to NHB, Hispanic and Other patients (31.6 months vs. 16.7 months vs. 14.3 months, vs 18.1 months, p = 0.021). In bivariate analysis, overall survival was negatively influenced by advanced age and race. Obesity and zip code poverty levels approached statistical significance in predicting OS. In multivariate analysis, the only factors independently influencing OS were race and allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Conclusion: These results suggest that race impacts survival in intermediate-risk AML, highlighting the need to dissect biologic and nonbiologic factors that contribute to this disparity.