PURPOSE: We examined the combined influences of race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on long-term survival among patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
METHODS: Data from the 2000-2015 NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER-18) were used. Census tract-level SES index was assessed in tertiles (low, medium, high SES). Competing-risk modeling was used to estimate sub-hazard ratios (SHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SES tertile adjusted for sex and age at diagnosis and stratified by race/ethnicity.
RESULTS: Overall, living in a low SES neighborhood was associated with worse MM survival. However, we observed some variation in the association by racial/ethnic group. Living in a low versus a high SES neighborhood was associated with a 35% (95% CI = 1.16-1.57) increase in MM-specific mortality risk among Asian/Pacific Islander cases, a 17% (95% CI = 1.12-1.22) increase among White cases, a 14% (95% CI = 1.04-1.23) increase among Black cases, and a 7% (95% CI = 0.96-1.19) increase among Hispanic cases.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the influence of both SES and race/ethnicity should be considered when considering interventions to remedy disparities in MM survival.