The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) is associated with excellent two-year outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM) patients aged 75 and older, according to a study published in Cancer.
In this study, researchers assessed 260 patients (63% male, 84% white) with MM all ≥75 years old receiving AHCT between 2013 and 2017 in the United States. The researchers used Cox proportional hazard models to analyze relapse and/or progression (REL), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The study covariates were age, sex, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI), International Staging System and/or Durie-Salmon stage, high-risk cytogenetics, melphalan dose, and disease status at and 1 year after transplant.
The results of a multivariate analysis showed that only high-risk cytogenetics was associated with REL risk and decreased PFS. Specifically, in White males, transplant utilization rate was 5.2%-5.8% compared to 3.5%-4.0% in African American males (P=.02). There was 3.37-3.79% transplant utilization in White females compared to 1.88-2.12% in African American females (P<.01).
“The use of AHCT was associated with excellent 2-year outcomes in this selected MM population ≥75 years old. Transplant utilization for patients ≥75 years old remains low with significant racial and gender disparities,” the researchers concluded.